Educational Planning And Management Short Notes For Headmaster Exams
EDCATIONAL MANAGEMENT NOTES
Supervision is a process by which one worker is given responsibility by the organisation to work with another worker(s) in order to meet certain organisational, professional and personal objectives which together promote the best outcomes for service users
The process of dealing with or controlling things or people
Management is the process of reaching organizational goals by working with and through people and other organizational resources.
Management has the following 3 characteristics:
1. It is a process or series of continuing and related activities.
2. It involves and concentrates on reaching organizational goals.
3. It reaches these goals by working with and through people and other organizational resources.
The 4 basic management functions that make up the management process are described in the following sections:
PLANNING: Planning involves choosing tasks that must be performed to attain organizational goals, outlining how the tasks must be performed, and indicating when they should be performed.
Planning activity focuses on attaining goals. Managers outline exactly what organizations should do to be successful. Planning is concerned with the success of the organization in the short term as well as in the long term.
Organizing can be thought of as assigning the tasks developed in the planning stages, to various individuals or groups within the organization. Organizing is to create a mechanism to put plans into action.
People within the organization are given work assignments that contribute to the company’s goals. Tasks are organized so that the output of each individual contributes to the success of departments, which, in turn, contributes to the success of divisions, which ultimately contributes to the success of the organization.
Influencing is also referred to as motivating,leading or directing.Influencing can be defined as guiding the activities of organization members in he direction that helps the organization move towards the fulfillment of the goals.
The purpose of influencing is to increase productivity. Human-oriented work situations usually generate higher levels of production over the long term than do task oriented work situations because people find the latter type distasteful.
Controlling is the following roles played by the manager:
1. Gather information that measures performance
2. Compare present performance to pre established performance norms.
3. Determine the next action plan and modifications for meeting the desired performance parameters.
Controlling is an ongoing process.
Management is an art of getting things done through others by directing their efforts towards achievement of pre-determined goals.
It is concerned with formulation of broad objectives, plans & policies.
Management is an executing function.
Administration is a decision-making function.
Management decides who should as it & how should he dot it.
Administration decides what is to be done & when it is to be done.
Management is a doing function because managers get work done under their supervision.
Administration is a thinking function because plans & policies are determined under it.
Technical and Human skills
Conceptual and Human skills
Middle & lower level function
Top level function
On the Basis of Usage: –
It is applicable to business concerns i.e. profit-making organization.
It is applicable to non-business concerns i.e. clubs, schools, hospitals etc.
The management decisions are influenced by the values, opinions, beliefs & decisions of the managers.
The administration is influenced by public opinion, govt. policies, religious organizations, customs etc.
Management constitutes the employees of the organization who are paid remuneration (in the form of salaries & wages).
Administration represents owners of the enterprise who earn return on their capital invested & profits in the form of dividend.
§ Leadership is setting a new direction or vision for a group that they follow, ie: a leader is the spearhead for that new direction
§ Management controls or directs people/resources in a group according to principles or values that have already been established.
Management is… Leadership is….
Coping with complexity Coping with and promoting change
Planning and Budgeting Setting a Direction
Organizing and Staffing Aligning People
Controlling and Problem Solving Motivating and Inspiring People
Effective Action Meaningful Action
Planning: Predetermining a course of action
Organizing: Placing people into a structure to accomplish objectives
Leading: Influencing people to take effective action in the implementation of the plan
Controlling: Assuring that performance conforms to plan
The directors and managers who have the power and responsibility to make decisions and oversee an enterprise.