INFORMATIONS ABOUT PAKISTAN DAMS AND BARRAGES
DAMS AND BARRAGES
DUNGI DAMDohngi Dam (Dungi Dam) is a dam, located 2 kilometers northwest of Gujar
Khan in Rawalpindi, Pakistan.
GHAZI BAROTHA DAMGhazi Barotha Dam is located on Indus River in Pakistan. Ghazi
Barotha Hydroelectric project is located around 100 km from Islamabad. It involved the
construction of a partial river diversion at Ghazi Barotha, 7 km downstream from the Tarbela
The barrage diverts water into a 52 km concrete-lined channel and delivers it to the 1,450MW
powerhouse at Barotha. This is further downstream, near the confluence of the Indus and Haro
rivers. In this reach the Indus River drops by 76 m within a distance of 63 km. After passing
through the powerhouse, diverted water is returned to the Indus. In addition to these main
works,transmission lines stretch 340 km.
GOMAL DAMGomal Dam is located on Gomal river in South Waziristan, NWFP, Pakistan.
GOMAL ZAM DAM PROJECTGomal Zam Dam Project is located in Damaan area of NWFP,
Pakistan. Gomal River, on which a 437 feet high Gomal Zam Dam will be built, is one of the
significant tributaries of Indus River. It is planned to irrigate about 163,000 acres of land. The
total projects costs amounts to Rs. 12 billion. It will be a Roller compacted concrete dam, having
a gross storage of 1.14 MAF. It will produce 17.4 MW of electricity when completed.
Approximately Rs. 4.388 billion contracts for the construction of Gomal Zam Dam Project was
awarded to Messers CWHEC – HPE, a joint venture of two Chinese firms in August 2002.
GUDDU BARRAGEGuddu Barrage is a barrage across river Indus, near Sukkur in Pakistan.
President Sikander Mirza laid foundation-stone of the Guddu Barrage on February 2, 1957. The
barrage was completed in 1962.
At the time of its construction it has maximum design discharge of 1.2 million cubic feet per
second (34,000 m³/s). It is a gate-controlled weir type barrage with a navigation lock. The
barrage has 64 bays, each 60 feet (18 m) wide. The maximum flood level height of Guddu
barrage is 26 feet (8 m). It controls irrigation supplies to 2.9 million acres (12,000 km²)
ofagricultural lands in the Jacobabad, Larkana and Sukkur districts of Sindh and the
Nasirabaddistrict of Balochistan. The cost of the project was 474.8 million rupees. It feeds
Ghotki Feeder, Begari Feeder, Desert and Pat Feeder canals.
HUB DAMHub Dam is a large water storage reservoir constructed in 1981 on the Hub River
on the arid plains north of Karachi on provincial border between Balochistan and Sindh,
Pakistan. The reservoir supplies water for irrigation in Lasbela District of Balochistan
and drinking water for the city of Karachi. It is an important staging and wintering area for an
appreciable number of waterbirds and contains a variety of fish species which increase in
abundance during periods of high water. The Mahseer (Tor putitora), an indigenous riverine fish
found in the Hub River, can grow up to 9 feet in length and more than 110 lbs. The Hub reservoir
can grow up to 32 square miles and provides for excellent angling.
KALABAGH DAMThe Kalabagh dam is a mega water reservoir that Government of Pakistan
planning to develop across the Indus River, one of the world’s largest rivers. The proposed site
for the dam is situated at Kalabagh in Mianwali District of the northwest Punjab province,
The dam project is a highly controversial and has been so since its inception. In December 2005,
General Pervez Musharraf, who became the President of Pakistan after a 1999 coup, announced
that he would definitely build the dam in the larger interest of Pakistan.
HistoryThe region of Kalabagh was once an autonomous jagir (feudal estate) within Punjab. It
was annexed by the Sikhs in 1822. After the British annexed the Punjab, the Nawab of Kalabagh
was granted the jagir of Kalabagh, in recognition of his services to the British Raj.
According to the PC-II of the Project, Kala Bagh dam was initiated by GOP in 1953, and until
1973, the project was basically considered as a storage project for meeting the irrigation needs,
and consequently, rapid increases in the cost of energy have greatly enhanced the priority of the
dam as a power project.
The project’s paperwork was finalized in March, 1984, with the assistance of the United Nations
Development Programme; supervised by the World Bank, for the client Water and Power
Development Authority (WAPDA) of Pakistan.
ControversyThe proposed construction of the Kalabagh Dam triggered an extremely bitter
controversy among the four provinces of Pakistan, namely Punjab, Sindh, North-West Frontier
Province, and Balochistan. The only province which is in favor of this dam, is Punjab that is the
most strong among all four provinces, as usually the government is mainly centralized in it. The
other three provinces have expressed extreme dissatisfaction, going so far as to have their
provincial assemblies pass unanimous resolutions condemning the proposed dam. Hence, the
project is still under consideration.
The delay is also being caused by the fact that according to international water distribution law,
the tailender has a legal and natural right on river and that is why no mega construction or
reservoir can be built without permission and endorsement of the tail ender i.e. Sindh. In the case
where the tail ender is not using water i.e. building a water reservoir, a reservoir can be made
Impact assessments of the proposed dam have shown that while it will provide storage and
electricity, the dam will also have adverse impacts on the environment, as can be expected from
any large dam. It will also displace a large number of people. While proponents point to the
benefits, the adverse factors have been played up by the opponents of the dam. As a result, the
dam has been stalled by claims and counterclaims since 1984.
The controversy can be best understood by looking at the viewpoints of each of the four
Punjab — the granary of Pakistan – desperately needs more water to keep up with the growing
population and industrial demands on its agriculture. A dam at Kalabagh would also
supplycheap hydroelectric power.The annual outflow of water into the Arabian Sea is
considered a “waste” in Punjab, which feels that water can be used to irrigate
Pakistani infertile lands. Punjab wants not just Kalabagh, but also two more large dams on the
Indus, at Bhasha and Skardu/Katzarah. It feels that the Kalabagh site is the most favourable,
compared to the other two, and that it should be built first.
Sindh, the first province to point KBD project a blame game, is the lower riparian and strongest
opponent of KBD. But its case mainly against Punjab is more on a conceptual basis of what
Sindh thought to be “theft of water by Punjab” rather than locating an actual incident of theft.
Sindh supports its argument by stating that by virtue of its name and history of water rights of the
province, Indus River belongs exclusively to Sindh. Therefore, claiming the construction of
dams, Tarbela and Mangla and now KBD actions of theft of water at the irrigation cost of
Sindh. Further, Sindh presents many objections against the proposed dam. Some of these
objections are as follows:
Sindh objects that their share of the Indus water will be curtailed as water from the Kalabagh will
go to irrigate farmlands in Punjab and NWFP, at their cost. Sindhis hold that their rights as the
lower riparian have precedence according to international water distribution law.
The coastal regions of Sindh require a constant flow of water down the Indus into the Arabian
Sea so that the flowing water can keep the seawater from intruding inland. Such seawater
intrusion would literally turn vast areas of Sindh’s coast into an arid saline desert, and destroy
Sindh’s coastal mangroves.
With the construction of dams, such as Mangla Dam and Tarbela Dam across the Indus, Sindhis
have seen the once-mighty Indus turned into a shadow of its former glory downstream of the
Kotri Barrage up to Hyderabad. They fear that there simply is not enough water for another large
dam across the Indus, let alone three.
The Kalabagh site is located in a highly seismic zone near an active fault, and the underlying
rocks are likely to contain numerous fractures, causing the reservoir water to seep through the
catacomb of fractures and discharge at the lowest point around the reservoir and the Indus River.
Damming the Indus has already caused a number of environmental problems that have not yet
addressed. Silt deposited in the proposed Kalabagh dam would further curtail the water storage
capacity of Manchar Lake and other lakes and of wetlands like Haleji Lake.
President General Musharraf and other leaders, such as Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz, have
promised ‘iron-clad’ constitutional guarantees to ensure that Sindh gets its fair share of water.
However, these assurances mean little to most Sindhis, who point out that even the earlier 1991
Indus Water-Sharing Accord, which is a document already guaranteed by the constitutional
body, the Council of Common Interests, has been violated, and that Punjab has “stolen” their
The objection to Kalabagh in Sindh is widespread. Even political parties of Sindh that are in the
central cabinet and are supported by General Musharraf, such as the MQM, have strongly
denounced the dam.
The NWFP has two main objections to the dam.
While the reservoir will be in the NWFP, the dam’s electricity-generating turbines will be just
across the provincial border in Punjab. Therefore, Punjab would get royalties from the central
government in Islamabad for generating electricity. Contrary to this, however, Punjab has agreed
not to accept any royalties from the Kalabagh Dam. The fact that the NWFP will suffer the
adverse consequences of the reservoir but not get royalties is seen as unfair.
Concerns that large areas of Nowshera district would be submerged by the dam and even wider
areas would suffer from waterlogging and salinity as has occurred with the Tarbela Dam.
The dam does not directly affect the Baloch as such. Rather, most nationalist Baloch Sardars sees
the dam as another instance of Punjab lording it over the smaller provinces. By opposing the dam
they are signaling their disaffection with being the poorest province and most neglected of all in
development. In reality Balochistan can only get more water and its due share after the
construction of Kalabagh dam and Kachhi canal.
The Common Man’s Viewpoint
Majority of people of Pakistan are against the construction Kalabagh dam, as its construction can
prove a danger to sustain the unification of provinces under the name ‘Pakistan’. The only people
who want the construction of Kalabagh dam can be classified into two groups: The first is the
high ranked officers of Pakistan army, who will be granted farmlands to be irrigated by Kalabagh
dam after the retirements (in fact these are the most powerful supporters of dam). The second
group is the political leaders of Punjab; since the issue has turned out be a war between Sindh
and Punjab, so by favouring the construction of Dam, Punjabi politicians can maintain their votebank.
The only reason why President Pervaiz Musharaf favours Kalabhgh dam is because he
needs the support of Punjab to sustain his dictatorship in the country. All the ‘oppressed’
provinces (Sindh, NWFP and Balochistan) of the country has already expressed a huge concern
over the construction of dam, specially in Sindh where every single street has observed the
protest against the dam. The people of these oppressed provinces do not believe in any guarantee
from ‘Punjabiz’ Pakistani government as it has already done many decisions against the
constitution/treaties, for example, the regulation of water in Chashma-Jehlem link canal.
Most independent analysts believe that the foremost problem with the proposed dam at Kalabagh
is one of a trust deficit between the Punjab on one side and the other three provinces on the other.
The noted columnist, Ayaz Amir suggested that the people of Punjab should redefine their
assumptions about the rest of Pakistan and distribution of resources. A layman of Punjab does
not understand why the rest of Pakistan does not trust Punjab. The answer, according to Amir,
lies in the frequent coups staged by the Pakistan Army (which is overwhelmingly Punjabi in its
composition), as well as the Army’s extra-constitutional intervention and influence in public
sector and civil institutions of the country in general and Sindh in particular. Now no province is
ready to trust the Punjab.
All Pakistanis agree that Pakistan faces a severe water shortage, and that some form of water
management must be implemented soon. Many point out that even if work on Kalabagh were to
start tomorrow, it would still take at least eight years to complete and commission such a large
dam. In the meantime, the water situation would continue to worsen. Smaller dams, barrages,
and canals must be built before that, and water conservation techniques introduced.
The WAPDA for years repeatedly changed its statistics on the dam, to the point where no-one in
Pakistan now believes any of its figures. Government of Pakistan formed a technical committee,
headed by A. N. G. Abbasi, to study the technical merits of the Kalabagh dam vis-à-vis the other
two. The four-volume technical report concluded that Bhasha or Katzarah dam should be built
before Kalabagh, further complicating matters. To make matters even more complex, the report
also stated that Kalabagh and Bhasha Dams could be considered feasible.
The abrupt way in which President General Musharraf announced the decision to build the dam,
simply overruling the objections of the smaller states, has sharply polarised public opinion. In
Punjab the view is one of “…its high time!” while in the other states, especially Sindh, the
reaction has been one of “…over my dead body!”.
The fact that the General literally dragged so controversial an issue off the backburner and thrust
it into national centre stage without considering the predictable reactions from the smaller
provinces has left many aghast. Much has been said in the press, and the issue is still far from
Karoonjhar Dam is a dam in Tharparkar, Sindh, Pakistan.
As per the Indus Waters Treaty signed in 1960, India gained rights for the Ravi, Sutlej and Beas
rivers, while Pakistan, in addition to waters of above three rivers in her area and some monetary
compensation, got rights to develop the Jhelum, Chenab and Indus river basins. Until 1967, the
entire irrigation system of Pakistan was fully dependent on unregulated flows of the Indus and its
major tributaries. The agricultural yield was very low for a number of reasons, the most
important being a lack of water during critical growing periods. This problem stemmed from the
seasonal variations in the river flow and the absence of storage reservoirs to conserve the vast
amounts of surplus water during periods of high river discharge.
The Mangla Dam was the first development project undertaken to reduce this shortcoming and
strengthen the irrigation system. The dam was damaged partially during an Indian Air Force
bombing in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 when the hydel project was hit by the bombs.
The Mangla Dam project
The Mangla Dam, the twelfth largest dam and third largest earth-filled dam in the world, is only
115 km southeast of Rawalpindi. One has to turn left from Dina Town and the dam on river
Jhelum is about 14 km to the east. It was constructed in 1967 across the Jhelum River, about 100
miles southeast of the federal capital, Islamabad. The main structures of the dam include 4
embankment dams, 2 spillways, 5 power-cum-irrigation tunnels and a power station.
The main dam is 10,300 feet long and 454 feet high (above core trench) with a reservoir of 97.7
square miles. Since its first impounding in 1967, sedimentation has occurred to the extent of 1.13
MAF, and the present gross storage capacity has declined to 4.75 MAF from the actual design of
5.88 MAF. The live capacity has declined to 4.58 MAF from 5.34 MAF. This implies a
reduction of 19.22% in the capacity of the dam.
The project was designed primarily to increase the amount of water that could be used for
irrigation from the flow of the Jhelum and its tributaries. Its secondary function was to generate
electrical power from the irrigation releases at the artificial head of the reservoir. The project was
not designed as a flood control structure, although some benefit in this respect also arises from
its use for irrigation and water supply.
In the centre of the dam there is a Gakkhar Fort from where one can have a panoramic view of
Mirani Dam is located in Gwadar District, Balochistan, Pakistan. Mirani Dam multipurpose
project, is located on Dasht River, about 30 miles west of Turbat in Makran Division of
Balochistan, it envisages provision of dependable irrigation supplies for the development ref
irrigated agriculture on the two banks of the river. The project have been completed in November
2006 and inaugurated by president Pervaiz of Pakistan.
The Shakidor (Shadi Kor) dam is located near Pasni, in the Balochistan province of south west
Pakistan, 1,900 km (1,180 miles) from Islamabad and has a length of about 148 meters (485
feet). It was built in 2003, at a cost of 45 million rupees (758,853 dollars), to provide irrigation
water to the nearby farms.
On February 10, 2005, the dam burst under the pressure of a weeks’ worth of rain, killing at least
70 villagers and dragging their bodies to the Arabian Sea. The Pakistani military was sent into
emergency Search and Rescue operations, saving 1,200 people but still having to account for
over 400 missing.
The Sukkur barrage is a barrage across the Indus river near the city of Sukkur, Pakistan. It was
built during the British Raj from 1923 to 1932 as the Lloyd Barrage to help alleviate famines
caused by lack of rain. The barrage enables water to flow through what was originally a 6166-
mile long network of canals, feeding the largest irrigation system in the world, with more than 5
million acres (20,000 km²) of irrigated land.
The retaining wall has sixty-six spans, each 60 feet wide; each span has a gate which weighs 50
Tarbela Dam (or the National Dam), the world’s largest earth-filled dam on one of the world’s
most important rivers – the Indus-, is 103 km from Rawalpindi near Haripur District. It is a major
source of Pakistan’s total hydroelectric capacity. Tarbela Dam is part of the Indus Basin Project,
which resulted from a water treaty signed in 1960 between India and Pakistan, guaranteeing
Pakistan water supplies independent of upstream control by India. Construction began in 1968,
and was completed in 1976 at a cost of Rs.18.5 billion. Over 15,000 Pakistani and 800 foreign
workers and engineers worked during its construction. It is the biggest hydel power station in
Pakistan having a capacity of generating 3,478 MW of electricity. The dam has a volume of
138,600,000 cubic yards (106,000,000 m³). With a reservoir capacity of 11,098,000 acre-feet
(13.69 km³), the dam is 469 feet (143 m) high and 8,997 feet (2,743 m) wide at its crest while
total area of the lake is 260 sq.km. It helps to maintain the flow of the Indus during seasonal
A new, smaller hydroelectric power project has been developed downstream known as the Ghazi
Barotha Hydel Power Project. It is solely for generating electricity and has a water channel with
the highest flow in the world.
While the dam has fulfilled its purpose in storing water for agricultural use in Pakistan, there
have been environmental consequences to the Indus river delta. Reductions of seasonal flooding
and reduced water flows to the delta have decreased mangrove stands and the abundance of some
Permits are required for visiting the Dam. Please contact Public Relations Officer (PRO), Water
and Power Development Authority (WAPDA), Tarbela (Tel: 051-568941-2). A No-Objection
Certificate (NOC) from the Ministry of Interior (Shaheed-e-Millat Sectt.), Islamabad is also
required for foreign visitors.
Diamer-Bhasha Dam is the name of a dam that has been planned in the Northern Areas of
Pakistan on the River Indus. It is located about 314 km upstream of Tarbela Dam and about 165
km downstream of Gilgit. The dam is expected to create a large reservoir with a gross capacity of
7.3 million-acre feet (9 km³) submerging large tracts of land in the Diamer district. The dam is
supposed to have a power generation capacity of 3.360 megawatts and is expected to
considerable ease up the skewed hydro to thermal power generation ratio in Pakistan. It is
expected that the detailed drawings of the dam would be completed by March 2008, immediately
after which construction work shall begin.
TANDA DAM (RAMSAR SITE)
Tanda Dam is lcated in Kohat District, North-West Frontier Province, Pakistan. The site
comprises a small water storage area in semi-arid hills in the catchments of the Kohat Toi River.
Although most of the shoreline is steep, stony and devoid of aquatic vegetation, at the west end
there are some areas of gently shelving muddy shores with a small amount of emergent
Namal Lake is located in one corner of the Namal valley in Mianwali, Punjab, Pakistan. This
lake was created when Namal Dam was constructed in 1913. Namal Dam is situated some 32 km
from Mianwali city. Namal Lake spread over 5.5 sq km, in Namal valley. There are mountains
on its western and southern sides. On the other two sides are agricultural areas.
NAMAL dam is situated some 32 KM from Mianwali city. This dam is very old. British
Government constructed it. When Mianwali became District then the district government
buildings were constructed using water stored in Namal Lake from this Namal Dam.
In 1913, British engineers, to meet the scarcity of irrigation and drinking water, built a dam on
this lake and from here they irrigated lands up to Mianwali city. But with the passage of time and
construction of Thal Canal and installation of tube wells, its utility of water squeezed up to some
limit. The gates of the dam are repaired by the irrigation department regularly but without
enthusiasm. The hill torrents and rains fill the Namal Lake round the year. Due to a drought-like
situation in the country, this lake dried up last year, which is the first incident of its kind during
the last 100 years, said one of the senior inhabitants of this area.
An engineer told this correspondent that the name of Namal Dam still exists on the list of dams
in the world. Namal Lake is an ideal abode for the migratory birds in winter season when
thousands of waterfowls, including Russian ducks and Siberian cranes, land in the lake water.
Due to the apathy of the wildlife department, these guest birds are ruthlessly killed by poachers.
To save these birds, the wildlife department must declare this lake a sanctuary.
There is beautiful sulphur water fountain near the Numal dam site.People use this water for
treatment of different diseases.This sulphur water fountain is very old but even then the flow rate
of water is same .If government take care and give attention to this fountain then this can be a
great source of sulphur.By drying the water you can get a good quality sulphur from here.
Khanpur Dam is a dam located on the Haro River near the town of Khanpur, about 25 miles from
Islamabad, Pakistan. It forms Khanpur Lake, a reservoir which supplies drinking water to
Islamabad and Rawalpindi and irrigation water to many of the agricultural and industrial areas
surrounding the cities. The dam was named from the former Khanpur village, which was
submerged by the reservoir, so a new Khanpur town has been built downstream of the Dam.
The dam was completed in 1983 after a 15-year construction period believed to have cost Rs.
1,352 million. It is 167 feet high and stores 110,000 acre-feet of water.
Misriot dam is located 12 km southwest of Rawalpindi. This small dam has an artificial lake with
boating and fishing facilities. Fishing permit may be obtained from fishing guard at Misriot. It
has a pleasant landscape and walkways beyond the lake among eruptions of black rocks.
It is a small dam located at about 35 Km southwest of Rawalpindi on Dhamial Road. Ideal for a
day trip, the lake has a quiet atmosphere.
The gignatic multi-purpose Warsak Dam is situated 30 kms north-west of Peshawar in the heart
of tribal territory. It has a total generating capacity of 240,000 kw and will eventually serve to
irrigate 110,000 acres of land.
Taunsa Barrage is located on Indus river in Punjab, Pakistan.
The Taunsa Barrage was completed in 1958, and it has been identified as the barrage with the
highest priority for rehabilitation. It requires urgent measures to avoid severe economic and
social impacts on the lives of millions of poor farmers through interruption of irrigation on two
million acres (8,000 km²) and drinking water in the rural areas of southern Punjab, benefiting
several million farmers.
In 2003, the World Bank has approved a $123 million loan to Pakistan to rehabilitate the Taunsa
Barrage on the River Indus whose structure had been damaged owing to soil erosions and oldage.
This project will ensure irrigation of the cultivated lands in the area of the Muzaffargarh and
Dera Ghazi Khan canals, and through the Taunsa-Panjnad Link Canal that supplements the water
supply to Panjnad headworks canals.
TAUNSA BARRAGE (RAMSAR SITE)
Taunsa Barrage wetland site is located 20 km northwest of Kot Adu, Muzaffargarh District,
The rare marbled teal Marmaronetta angustirostris is a regular passage migrant and winter visitor
in small numbers. The rare Indus dolphin Platanista minor and otter Lutra perspicillata are
present in the river in small numbers. The site forms a very important wintering area for
waterbirds, (notably Anatidae), and a breeding area for several species, notably Dendrocygna
javanica, and a staging area for certain cranes (Grus grus and Anthropoides virgo) and
shorebirds. Dendrocygna javanica is a common breeding summer visitor with 325 counted in
August 1995. Over 24,000 waterbirds were present in mid-January 1987, including: 620
Phalacrocorax niger, 79 Anser indicus, 2,780 Anas penelope, 770 A. strepera, 4,880 A. crecca,
270 A. platyrhynchos, 1,660 A. acuta, 390 A. clypeata, 4,690 Aythya ferina, 53 Anthropoides
virgo, 150 Porphyrio porphyrio and 7,510 Fulica atra, along with fewer numbers of Tachybaptus
ruficollis, Tadorna tadorna, Marmaronetta angustirostris, Netta rufina, Aythya fuligula,
Hydrophasianus chirurgus, Himantopus himantopus and Numenius arquata.
The wetland was first declared as a Wildlife Sanctuary of 6,567 ha in 1972, the Sanctuary was
re-listed in April 1983, then in July 1988 and subsequently in March 1993. It has been proposed
that the Indus River from Taunsa Barrage upstream to Kalabagh and downstream to Guddu
Barrage be declared as a World Heritage Site for the Indus dolphin Platanista minor.
CHASHMA BARRAGE (RAMSAR SITE)
Chashma Barrage wetland site is located Indus Monsoon Forest, some 25 km southwest of
Mianwali, Punjab, Pakistan.
The site is comprised of a large barrage, a water storage reservoir and a series of embankments
(serving as flood bounds) which divide the reservoir into five shallow lakes at low water levels.
The site is comprised of a large barrage, a water storage reservoir and a series of embankments
(serving as flood bounds) which divide the reservoir into five shallow lakes at low water levels.
The aquatic vegetation consists of Hydrilla verticillata, Nelumbium speciosum, Nymphaea lotus,
Typha angustata, Typha elephantina, Phragmites australis, Potamogeton crispus-Myriophyllum
sp.-Nymphoides cristatum, Potamogeton pectinatus, Saccharum spontaneum, Vallisneria spiralis
and Zannichellia palustris. The natural vegetation of the region is a mixture of subtropical semievergreen
scrub and tropical thorn forest. Species include Olea ferruginea, Acacia modesta, A.
nilotica, Adhatoda vasica, Dodonaea viscosa, Gymnosporia sp., Prosopis cineraria, Reptonia
buxifolia, Salvadora oleoides, Tamarix aphylla, T. dioica, Ziziphus mauritania, Z. nummularia,
Chrysopogon aucheri, Lasiurus hirsutus, Heteropogon contortus and Panicum antidotale.
Prosopis glandulosa has been introduced in the area. Most of the natural thorn forest on the
plains to the east of the Indus has been cleared for agricultural land and for irrigated plantations
of Dalbergia sissoo and other species. The rich fish fauna includes Gudusia chapra, Notopterus
chitala, Catla catla, Cirrhinus mrigala, C. reba, Labeo rohita, L. microphthalmus, Puntius ticto, P.
stigma, Barilius vagra, Wallago attu, Rita rita, Bagarius bagarius, Mystus aor, M. seenghala,
Heteropneustes fossilis, Eutropiichthys vacha, Nandus sp., Mastacembelus armatus, M. pancalus,
Ambassis nama, A. ranga and Channa punctatus. Other aquatic fauna includes Hirudinaria sp.,
Palaemon spp., Rana tigrina, Kachuga smithi, Trionyx gangeticus and Lissemys punctata.
Mammals occurring in the area include Sus scrofa cristatus, Axis porcinus, Canis aureus, Felis
libyca and Lutra perspicillata.
KACCHI CANAL PROJECT
Kachhi Canal Project is located in Punjab, Pakistan. Kachhi Canal Project was started in October
2002. The project, estimated to cost Rs28 billion, is planned as a fast track part of Vision-2025,
the national development programme of water and hydropower resources. The first leg of the
project comprises 500-kilometre-long Kachhi Canal to off take from Taunsa Barrage with a
capacity of 6,000 cusecs. According to the official documents, the project will provide irrigation
to 713,000 acres of land and will enhance cropping intensity in the project area from the present
2 per cent to 46 per cent. The Kachhi Canal will be fed through Taunsa Barrage for only six